Different types of childbirth

Different types of childbirth

Different types of childbirth

Childbirth is the culmination of human pregnancy; the period when the infant comes out of the womb. . It is believed that a woman goes into labour with the onset of regular uterine contractions, which increase in intensity and frequency and are accompanied by physiological changes in the neck of the uterus.

The natural process of human childbirth is categorized in three phases: the effacement and dilation of the cervix, descent and birth of the baby, and delivery of the placenta. Although delivery can be assisted with drugs such as oxytocin, certain anesthetics, and possibly an episiotomy, this must not ever be done routinely.

Childbirth can be safe and spontaneous, and unnecessary intervention is not recommended. In some pregnancies, classified as high risk for the mother or the fetus, a cesarean birth occurs. This is the removal of the baby through a surgical incision in the abdomen instead of by vaginal delivery.

In most countries, childbirth is a natural process that women typically go through with the support of other experienced women. Some women will call upon midwives, some of which are health professionals serving as midwives. The involvement of medical personnel specialized in obstetrics is often seen when a complication of the pregnancy or childbirth appears, such as complications calling for either a caesarean section or forceps delivery.

It is expected that a woman gives birth between thirty-seven and forty-two completed weeks from the date of the last menstruation. The onset of labour varies between one woman and another; still the most common signs are removal of the cervical mucus plug, the onset of mild uterine cramps at intervals of less than one every ten minutes, increased urinary frequency, pelvic pressure, rupture of the membranes surrounding the amniotic fluid, with consequent spillage of large liquid-and evidence of blood secretions.

Although there is no scientific evidence to support it, it is not uncommon for mothers to feel an urge to “prepare the nest” shortly before the onset of labour, completing such activities as putting the finishing touches on the baby’s room, and getting up early with such tasks. It would be relatively easy to obtain evidence from mothers to either support or obviate this notion.

Types of childbirth

There are various methods by which the baby is born at the end of the term of pregnancy, or in some cases, even before forty weeks or nine months of gestation:

Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery
In natural birth, the baby passes through the vagina of the mother. A health professional may assist, with or without low-tech assistance, and without the help of drugs. In most healthcare institutions vaginal delivery occurs in a gynecological position, with the pregnant woman in supine position, i.e., lying on her back with her feet held to the height of the buttocks to make it more convenient for the medical staff.

This is known as the lithotomy position, and has been routinely used for years at birth. It is, however, a controversial position because delivery can naturally occur in an upright bent position, for example, in which gravity can help the child’s natural output. In the lithotomy there is more likelihood of slow, prolonged expulsion, fetal distress and maternal perineal tears.

Ideally, at the time of delivery the mother should be in an environment that is quiet and unhurried. Soft light, few people outside the intimate setting, a comfortable position chosen by her, perhaps music or flowers or scents if she likes ¬¬– all aid to create privacy and trust.

Hot water delivery is another type of delivery. It is practiced in the home, in hospitals or in private.

Forceps vaginal delivery
Occasionally, vaginal delivery should be assisted with special instruments such as forceps to release the baby’s head in order to grasp it and pull it out of the birth canal. Though infrequent, their use may be indicated in some difficult deliveries.

Caesarean section
About 20 percent of births in developed countries, such as the United States, are performed surgically by an abdominal operation called a caesarean section (C-section). Not all C-sections are medically indicated in cases of high-risk births; the mother elects a percentage of them though her baby could be born vaginally.

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